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Drone Systems

Frequently asked questions

Q: Which drone system is best for field mapping?

A: We recommend the DJI Mavic 2 Pro for field mapping, as it is a lightweight and versatile drone system that can be folded away for ease of transport. It also has a 20 megapixel camera.

(We can upgrade this with an NDRE or NDVI single sensor from Sentera. (This sensor is additional and does not replace the standard camera))

Q: Is a case included with your drone systems?

A: It depends which package you want and which drone you buy. Most DJI drones come with a decent carry case when bought new, however you can often get a better case if you buy the “fly more” bundle, which also comes with extra batteries.

Q: Can I carry the drone and batteries on commercial flights?

A: You can carry up to two lithium batteries on a flight if they are over 100Wh, but you aren’t restricted on any batteries under 100Wh. It is best however, to check with your airline before taking them. You also have to keep the batteries in your hand luggage.

Q: How long do batteries last for in-flight?

A: Again this depends on which drone system you have, but they range from around 15-30 mins.

Q: Do all drones have a Return To Home (RTH) function?

A: Most DJI drone systems have an RTH safety feature built in, but you shouldn’t rely on it. If you see your drone getting low on battery, it’s best to land it yourself.

Q: Do I need a license to fly my drone?

A: This depends upon whether or not you’re planning to operate drones for commercial purposes. In the UK, the CAA (Civil Aviation Authority) require that any drone operators that operate for ‘commercial gain’ (i.e. to make money) obtain a PFCO (Permission For Commercial Operations) from them. This involves a course, including written theory exams and flight tests. We run the courses here at our Northumberland base and you can book them through the website.

Q: Can I fly my drone when it's raining?

A: You can usually fly drones in very light showers, but it is not advised. However; some drones like the DJI M200/210 and DJI AGRAS are IP rated and can be flown in the rain.

Q: For RTK systems, is there any extra setup required?

A: Since the RTK (Real-Time Kinetic) unit is built into the drone, the only extra step is to position and turn on the ground unit/base station and wait for it to acquire a GPS-lock before powering on the drone system.

Q: We have land containing electricity pylons and/or radio/phone towers, should we worry about interference affecting the system?

A: For operators that expect to experience electrical or signal interference during flight, we suggest using RTK (Real-Time Kinetic) systems for optimal safety. The built-in RTK unit enables the drone to hover with centimeter-level accuracy due to the improved GPS data, making interference to the transmission system less potentially dangerous. They are also hardened against magnetic interference.

If RTK options are outside your budget, careful flight planning should still allow you to cover the majority of your land.

Q: What is the maximum wind speed I can fly my Mavic in?

A: This depends on how confident you are in your abilities. We wouldn’t advise flying in winds of over 20mph.

Cameras and Sensors

Frequently asked questions

Q: Are multispectral, hyperspectral and thermal cameras the same thing?

A: No, multi-spectral sensors, generally speaking, collect light from various wavelengths that the human eye cannot distinguish. The ones used in drone mapping tend to include near-infrared (NIR) and/or red-edge (RE) light.
Thermal cameras on the other hand, capture light that is specific to the long infrared, or “thermal” bands.
Hyper-spectral sensors are like special multi-spectral sensors, but instead of capturing light from between 2 and 10 bands, they capture light from hundreds or even thousands of bands.

Q: Which is better, NDRE or NDVI?

A: We have found that NDRE is better for later stage crops and for crops with a larger biomass. This is because the NDVI values max out when the crop reaches a certain growth stage. However, NDVI is probably the most used for early-stage crops as it reads the top layer of a canopy very accurately.

Q: What is a sunlight sensor for?

A: sunlight sensors/incident light sensors (ILS)/ambient illumination sensors (AIS)/down-welling light sensors (DLS) are used to calibrate data captured by multi-spectral sensors by measuring levels of incoming sunlight at the time an of an image being captured.

In theory, this allows for a more accurate reading of the light levels reflected by ground and vegetation, meaning data can be compared from the same field over different dates – this can be useful in trials and other R&D work.
However, though these systems do correct for changing light conditions; it is still inadvisable to capture data when lighting is inconsistent (during patchy cloud cover & early/late when the sun is low) as shadows cannot be corrected for.

For day-to-day crop monitoring applications, we generally recommend a gimballed sensor over a sunlight sensor. True “nadir” imagery is more important to accuracy than sunlight sensing.

Q: What kind of resolution and accuracy can I expect from your systems?

A:  Most standard RGB cameras have a 12 megapixel sensor that will provide 2.5cm/pixel resolution when flying at 80m altitude, sub 1cm resolution is achievable by flying lower, though flight and processing time are significantly increased.

Accuracy of the imagery produced in terms of location is based on the GPS accuracy of the system. The standard system will therefore produce a horizontal accuracy of +/- 1m and a vertical accuracy (for terrain and elevation maps) of +/- 0.5m. This is more than enough for most agri-mapping scenarios.

Where increased accuracy is required, for tasks like margin/tramline route generation or accurate ground distance measurements, RTK systems will increase horizontal accuracy to +/- 10cm and vertical to +/- 5cm.

Q: Which multispectral camera would you recommend for an M200?

A: That’s a common and very complex question!
It’s best to contact us directly if you’re looking to use anything that isn’t a standard RGB camera.
We can offer sensors from a dual 5-band to 8+ bands fully integrated with specific DJI drones, these can use the NIR and RE bands as well as specific bands you wish to capture.
RGB is also an option for some of these sensors, so that you can capture standard imagery at the exact same time as the other bands.


Frequently asked questions

Q: What software is compatible with your drone systems?

A: Our drone systems are compatible with all DJI software (DJI GO/GO4, DJI GS Pro), as well as many third party apps for flying and mapping with drones, such as DroneDeploy, FieldAgent and Litchi.

Q: Can the data be imported into farm management software packages and machinery?

A: Yes. All of the data can be exported in “shapefile” format (.shp), which is the most common file format for use with farm management software packages. Prescription files generated can also be imported into variable rate machinery via shapefiles.

Q: Is there any software available that will help me plan operations and keep flight records?

A: There are some good apps out there that can help you plan flights with integrated airspace monitoring to help you fly safely. Some will also help you to maintain flight logs (required by the CAA for commercial operations) and even manage multiple drone teams, here’s our recommended list:

Flyte – for flight planning – Contact Us for a free trial and discounts.

Airdata – Flight logging and metrics – Synchronises directly with DJI and DroneDeploy.

NATS Drone Assist App – Very useful tool for checking airspace before you fly. Free.

Q: What software is best for processing multispectral data?

A: We would recommend Pix4D Fields or Pix4D Mapper for processing multispectral data, Mapper provides additional features such as Thermal data processing and more export options.

Q: What's the easiest software to use for mapping?

A: We have two go-to programs for mapping:

DroneDeploy: Great for mapping as it has a very easy-to-use app and it’s website is clear and concise. Great for RGB but not great for NDRE/NDVI.

Fieldagent: Sentera’s software, Very good for NDRE and NDVI but not as good at stitching RGB unless you have very high overlaps.

Drone Training

Frequently asked questions

Q: Where is the course run?

A: We run the course in Northumberland and Norfolk.

Q: What different courses do you provide?

A: We provide 3 different courses and are planning on introducing new ones soon! The three we currently run are the “Using your farm drone” hands on and online course along with the CAA PFCO Course for commercial users. We also offer bespoke, private training with g=hardware purchases, or for larger corporate groups.

Q: Do you get the CAA qualification for doing the “using your farm drone” training course?

A: No, The CAA Course is a separate course that is needed for commercial operators.

Q: Can we book company training days?

A: Yes we now allow companies to book private training days as long as they have 4 or more people attending.

Q: Is the “Using your farm drone course” Basis registered?

A: Yes both the online and hands on course can get you BASIS CPD points. 12 for the hands on course and 6 for the online course

Q: Do I need a drone to do the course?

A: No, we can lend you one if you need it.

Q: Will I need to purchase any software separately?

A: The software we use is free of charge for a basic version, however, paid versions are available for greater functionality.

Q: Do I need anything for the course?

A: You’ll need to bring along a smartphone or tablet to download the appropriate software.

Q: I have a drone but it’s not DJI; can I still use it for farming?

A: We primarily focus on DJI drones due to their expansive capabilities. The course is still available for the theoretical learning aspect.

Q: What happens if we can’t fly due to the weather?

A: We use a combination of a drone simulator and out on the field ground demonstrations.

Q: Is drone law covered?

A: Yes – we will provide an overview of the applicable drone rules and regulations.

Q: Are there any exams I need to take?

A: No not an exam but there is a small test after each module for the Lantra certificate.

Q: Does the course cover arable and pastoral farming?

A: The course is predominantly based towards arable farming, however, the skills learnt are transferable.

Q: I haven’t flown a drone before. Can I still take the course?

A: Having some hands-on experience prior to the course will be beneficial, however, it’s possible to learn the processes used in farming.

Drone-based Spraying

Frequently asked questions

Q: Is spraying with drones legal in the UK?

A: No, spraying with drones isn’t currently legal in the UK but we are working on it.

Q: What drone system can you use for drone spraying?

A: The DJI Agras is the system to look at. It can hold 10kg of chemical and can spray 7-10 acres per hour.

Q: How long will it be until drone spraying in the UK is possible?

A: We currently have a special CAA permission to operate drone spraying systems. However the CRD have not yet enabled the use of these systems for spraying chemicals – we are currently conducting trials and testing for this.

We are hoping to be commercially spraying with drones by 2020 in the UK.

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